Adaptive Stiffness Systems & Structures

Research and Impact:

Our group’s research thrust in earthquake protection, seismic isolation, and advanced seismic protection, and structural control has focused on adaptive passive stiffness structures, and variable stiffness structural systems. Our group has performed widely cited research on adaptive stiffness structural systems and smart tuned mass dampers.

We have invented and developed truly adaptive passive stiffness systems—particularly negative stiffness systems in an NSF NEES funded multi-university study. Recently ASCE awarded the Moissieff award in 2015 for our team’s research on negative stiffness structural systems.

Visit www.ruf.rice.edu/~dsg for further details.

Visit https://www.youtube.com/user/RiceSNDSG for videos of tests

Ph.D. students who graduated in the NSF NEES project involving Rice, UB, RPI and UCLA are the following:

  • Dharma Theja Reddy Pasala (Ph.D. Rice 2013), Currently Riser Engineer, INTECSEA, Houston, TX
  • Apostolos Sarlis (Ph.D. UB 2015-Jointly with UB Prof. Constantinou in NSF-NEES project), Currently Research Engineering, Exxon Mobil, Houston, TX
  • Navid Attary (Ph.D. RPI 2015-Jointly with RPI Prof. Symans in NSF-NEES project), Currently FMC Global, Boston
  • Tathagatha Ray (Ph.D. UB – Jointly with UB Prof. Reinhorn in NSF-NEES project), Currently Assistant Professor, University of New Mexico
  • Srivishnu Mohan Venkata Vemuru (Ph.D. Rice 2014), Offshore Structural Engineer Engineer 2014-2016, Post-Doc at Rice University 2016-2018
  • Zhan Shu (Ph.D. UCLA 2015-Jointly with UCLA Prof. Zhang in NSF-NEES project), Currently Consulting Engineer, Los Angeles
  • Wang Shi ( Ph.D. UCLA 2015 – Prof. Zhang in NSF-NEES project), Currently Consulting Engineer, Los Angeles

Publications resulting from the NSF NEES project involving Rice, UB, RPI and UCLA are the following:

  • Pasala, D.T.R., Sarlis, A.A., Nagarajaiah, S., Reinhorn, A.M., Constantinou, M.C. and Taylor, D. (2013) “Adaptive Negative Stiffness: A New Structural Modification Approach for Seismic Protection”, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0000615, 139 (7): 1112-1123 .
  • Sarlis, A.A., Pasala, D.T.R., Constantinou, M.C., Reinhorn, A.M., Nagarajaiah, S., and Taylor, D. (2013)“Negative stiffness device for seismic protection of structures” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0000616, 139 (7):  1124-1133 .
  • Pasala, D.T.R., Sarlis, A.A., Reinhorn, A.M., Nagarajaiah, S., Constantinou, M.C., and Taylor, D. (2015). “Apparent Weakening in SDOF Yielding Structures Using a Negative Stiffness Device: Experimental and Analytical Study”, Journal of Structural Engineering, 141(4), DOI: 10.1061/(asce)st.1943-541x.0001077.
  • Pasala, D., Sarlis, A., Reinhorn, A., Nagarajaiah, S., Constantinou, M., and Taylor, D. (2014) “Simulated Bilinear-Elastic Behavior in a SDOF Elastic Structure Using Negative Stiffness Device: Experimental and Analytical Study,” Journal of Structural Engineering, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0000830, 140(2): 04013049 .
  • Sarlis, A.A., Pasala, D.T.R., Constantinou, M.C., Reinhorn, A.M., Nagarajaiah, S., and Taylor, D.P. (2016). “Negative Stiffness Device for Seismic Protection of Structures: Shake Table Testing of a Seismically Isolated Structure”, Journal of Structural Engineering, 142(5), DOI: 10.1061/(asce)st.1943-541x.0001455.
  • Attary, N., Symans, M. and Nagarajaiah, S., (2017). “Development of a rotation-based negative stiffness device for seismic protection of structures”, Journal of Vibration and Control, 23(5), 853-867, DOI: 10.1177/1077546315585435.
  • Attary, N., Symans, M., Nagarajaiah, S., Reinhorn, A.M., Constantinou, M.C., Sarlis, A.A., Pasala, D.T.R., and Taylor, D., (2015). “Experimental Shake Table Testing of an Adaptive Passive Negative Stiffness Device within a Highway Bridge Model” Earthquake Spectra, 31(4), 2163-2194, DOI: 10.1193/101913eqs273m.
  • Attary, N., Symans, M., Nagarajaiah, S., Reinhorn, A.M., Constantinou, M.C., Sarlis, A.A., Pasala, D.T.R., and Taylor, D., (2015). “Numerical simulations of a highway bridge structure employing passive negative stiffness device for seismic protection” Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 44(6), 973-995, DOI: 10.1002/eqe.2495.
  • Attary, N., Symans, M., Nagarajaiah, S., Reinhorn, A.M., Constantinou, M.C., Sarlis, A.A., Pasala, D.T.R., and Taylor, D., (2015). “Performance Evaluation of Negative Stiffness Devices for Seismic Response Control of Bridge Structures via Experimental Shake Table Tests” Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 19(2), 249-276, DOI: 10.1080/13632469.2014.962672.
  • Shu, Z., Zhang, J. and Nagarajaiah, S., (2017). “Dimensional Analysis of Inelastic Structures with Negative Stiffness and Supplemental Damping Devices”, Journal of Structural Engineering, 143(3), DOI: 10.1061/(asce)st.1943-541x.0001658.
  • Ray, T., Reinhorn, A. M., Nagarajaiah, S. (2013) “Nonlinear elastic and inelastic spectra with inherent and supplemental damping”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, DOI: 10.1002/eqe.2318, 42(14): 2151 – 2165.
  • Zou, K. and Nagarajaiah S. (2015) “Study of a piecewise linear dynamic system with negative and positive stiffness” Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, 22(1-3), 1084-1101, DOI: 10.1016/j.cnsns.2014.08.016.
  • Chen, L., Sun, L., and Nagarajaiah, S., (2015) “Cable with discrete negative stiffness device and viscous damper: passive realization and general characteristics” Smart Structures and Systems, 15(3), 627-643.
  • Li, H.N., Qu, C., Huo, L.S., and Nagarajaiah, S., (2016) “Equivalent bilinear elastic single degree of freedom system of multi-degree of freedom structure with negative stiffness”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 365, 1-14, DOI: 10.1016/j.jsv.2015.11.005.
  • Sun, T., Lai, Z.L., Nagarajaiah, S. and Li, H.N., (2017) “Negative stiffness device for seismic protection of smart base isolated benchmark building”, Structural Control and Health Monitoring, 24(11), DOI: 10.1002/stc.1968.
  • Sun, T., Li, H.-N., Lai, Z.-L., Nagarajaiah, S., (2017) “Study on structural vibration control using curve-based negative stiffness device,” Journal of Vibration Engineering/Zhendong Gongcheng Xuebao, 30(3), pp. 449-4 DOI: 10.16385 / j.cnki.issn.1004-4523.2017.03.013.
  • Nagarajaiah S. (2009) “Adaptive passive, semiactive, smart tuned mass dampers : identification and control using empirical mode decomposition, Hilbert transform, and short-term Fourier transform”, Structural control and health monitoring, 16(7-8), 800-841.

 

Ph.D. students who graduated with research involving variable stiffness structures/systems:

2015, Dr. Keguan Zou, “Study of Adaptive Passive Stiffness Systems with Nonlinear Vibrations: New Analytical and Computational Techniques,” Ph.D. Dissertation, CEVE, Rice University, Dec. 2014, M.S., Southeast Univ., China, B.S., Tsinghua Univ., China

2014, Dr. Chao Sun, “Structural Vibration Control of Nonlinear Systems Using the Smart Tuned Mass Damper (STMD) and the Nonlinear Tuned Mass Damper (NTMD).” Ph.D. Dissertation, CEVE, Rice University, M.S. Tongji University, China, B.S. Shanghai Jaio Tong University, China

2011, Dr. Ertan Sonmez, “Deterministic and Stochastic Responses of Smart Variable Stiffness and Damping Systems and Smart Tuned Mass Dampers,” Ph.D. Dissertation, CEVE, Rice University. M.S. Vanderbilt University, B.S. Middle Eastern University, Turkey.

2004, Dr. Sriram Narasimhan, “Control of smart base isolated buildings with new semiactive devices and novel H2/LQG, H, and time frequency controllers” Ph.D. Dissertation, CEVE, Rice University., M.S. Rice, M.S. Louisiana State University, B.S. Osmania University, India.

2004, Jeffery Dyck, “Experimental and analytical study of variable fluid damper and stiffness device” M.S. Thesis, CEVE, Rice University. B.S. Texas A&M University.

2003, Dr. Ashutosh Agrawal, “Response of semiactive variable stiffness and damping systems to pulse type excitations: Analytical and experimental study” M.S. Thesis, CEVE, Rice University, B.S. IIT-Bombay, India. Ashutosh got his Ph.D. later from UC Berekeley.

2001, Dr. Sahasrabudhe, Sanjay, “Semi-active control of sliding base isolated buildings and bridges with variable stiffness and damping systems,” Ph.D. Dissertation, CEVE, Rice University. M.S. Pune University, India, B.S. Pune University, India.

2001, (defended in 2005) Dr. Nadathur Varadarajan, “Novel Smart Variable Stiffness Tuned Mass Damper and its Real Time Identification and Control using Time-frequency Techniques,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Rice University, Best graduate student award, CEVE. M.S. BITS-Pilani, India, B.S. BITS-Pilani, India.

 

Publications resulting from research involving Adaptive/Variable Passive/Semi-active Stiffness Structures/Systems:

Zou, K.G., and Nagarajaiah, S., (2016). “Closed-form criterion for convergence and stability of pseudo-force method for nonlinear dynamic analysis”, Nonlinear Dynamics, 86(2), 1035-1046, DOI: 10.1007/s11071-016-2944-5.

Karami, K., Nagarajaiah, S., and Amini, F., (2016). “Developing a smart structure using integrated DDA/ISMP and semi-active variable stiffness device”, Smart Structures and Systems, 18(5), 955-982, DOI: 10.12989/sss.2016.18.5.955.

Dinh, V.N., Basu, B., and Nagarajaiah, S. (2016). “Semi-active control of vibrations of spar type floating offshore wind turbines”, Smart Structures and Systems, 18(4), 683-705, DOI: 10.12989/sss.2016.18.4.683.

Sonmez, E., Nagarajaiah, S., Sun, C., and Basu, B. (2016). “A study on semi-active Tuned Liquid Column Dampers (sTLCDs) for structural response reduction under random excitations”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 362, 1-15, DOI: 10.1016/j.jsv.2015.09.020.

Zou, K., and Nagarajaiah, S., (2015) “An analytical method for analyzing symmetry-breaking bifurcation and period doubling bifurcation”, Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, 22(1-3), 780-792, DOI: 10.1016/j.cnsns.2014.08.015.

Chen, L., Sun, L., and Nagarajaiah, S., (2015). “Cable with discrete negative stiffness device and viscous damper: passive realization and general characteristics” Smart Structures and Systems, 15(3), 627-643.

Eason, R. P., Sun, C., Dick, A. J., and Nagarajaiah, S. (2015). “Steady-state response attenuation of a linear oscillator-nonlinear absorber system using an adjustable-length pendulum in series: Numerical and experimental results”, Source: Journal of Sound and Vibration, 344, 332-344, DOI: 10.1016/j.jsv.2015.01.030.

Zou, K. and Nagarajaiah S. (2015). “Study of a piecewise linear dynamic system with negative and positive stiffness” Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, 22(1-3), 1084-1101, DOI: 10.1016/j.cnsns.2014.08.016.

Zou, K. and Nagarajaiah S. (2015).“The solution structure of the Duffing oscillator’s transient response and general solution” Nonlinear Dynamics, 81(1-2), 621-639, DOI: 10.1007/s11071-015-2015-3.

Sun, C., Nagarajaiah, S., and Dick, A. J. (2014). “Experimental investigation of vibration attenuation using nonlinear tuned mass damper and pendulum tuned mass damper in parallel.” Nonlinear Dynamics, 78(4), 2699-2715.

Arrigan, J., Huang, C., Staino, A., Basu, B., and Nagarajaiah, S. “A frequency tracking semi-active algorithm for control of edgewise vibrations in wind turbine blades,” Smart Structures and Systems, DOI: 10.12989/sss.2014.13.2.177, 13(2), 177-201 (2014).

Nagarajaiah, S., and Jung, H-J. “Smart tuned mass dampers: recent developments,” Smart Structures and Systems, DOI: 10.12989/sss.2014.13.2.173, 13(2), 173-176 (2014).

Eason, R. P., Dick, A. J., Nagarajaiah, S. “Numerical investigation of coexisting high and low amplitude responses and safe basin erosion for a coupled linear oscillator and nonlinear absorber system” Journal of Sound and Vibration, doi: 10.1016/j.jsv.2014.03.039, 333(15): 3490–3504 (2014).

Pasala, D. T. R., and Nagarajaiah, S. “Adaptive-length pendulum smart tuned mass damper using shape-memory-alloy wire for tuning period in real time,” Smart Structures and Systems, DOI: 10.12989/sss.2014.13.2.203, 13(2), 203-217 (2014).

Sun, C., and Nagarajaiah, S. “Study on semi-active tuned mass damper with variable damping and stiffness under seismic excitations,” Structural Control and Health Monitoring, DOI: 10.1002/stc.1620, 21(6), 890–906 (2014).

Sun, C., Nagarajaiah, S. and Dick, A. J. “Family of smart tuned mass dampers with variable frequency under harmonic excitations and ground motions: closed-form evaluation” Smart Structures and Systems, DOI: 10.12989/sss.2014.13.2.319, 13(2), 319-341 (2014).

Contreras, M.T., Pasala, D. T. R. and Nagarajaiah, S. “Adaptive length SMA pendulum smart tuned mass damper performance in the presence of real time primary system stiffness change,” Smart Structures and Systems, DOI: 10.12989/sss.2014.13.2.219, 13(2), 219-233 (2014).

Sun, C., Eason, R.P., Nagarajaiah, S., Dick, A.J. “Hardening Düffing oscillator attenuation using a nonlinear TMD, a semi-active TMD and multiple TMD,” Journal of Sound and Vibration, DOI: 10.1016/j.jsv.2012.10.016, 332 (4), 674-686, (2013).

Eason, R.P., Sun, C., Dick, A.J., Nagarajaiah, S. “Attenuation of a linear oscillator using a nonlinear and a semi-active tuned mass damper in series,” Journal of Sound and Vibration, DOI: 10.1016/j.jsv.2012.07.048, 332 (1), 154-166, (2013).

Pasala, D. T. R., Nagarajaiah, S., and Grigoriadis, K. M., “Tracking Control of Variable Stiffness Hysteretic-Systems Using Linear-Parameter-Varying Gain-Scheduled Controller,” Smart Structures and Systems, 9(4), 373-392 (2012).

Arrigan, J., Prakash, V., Basu, B. and Nagarajaiah, S. “Control of Flapwise Vibrations in Wind Turbine Blades using semi-active tuned mass dampers” Structural Control & Health Monitoring, DOI: 10.1002/stc.404, 18 (8), 840-851 (2011).

Suresh, S., Narasimhan, S., Nagarajaiah, S., and Sundararajan, N. “Fault-tolerant adaptive control of nonlinear base isolated buildings using EMRAN”. Engineering Structures, DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2010.04.024, 32(8), 2477-2487 (2010).

Basu, B. and Nagarajaiah, S. “A Multi-Scale Wavelet-LQR Controller for Linear Time Varying Systems” Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)EM.1943-7889.0000162, 136(9), 1143-1151 (2010).

Nagarajaiah, S. “Adaptive Passive, Semiactive, Smart Tuned Mass Dampers: Identification and Control using Empirical Mode Decomposition, Hilbert transform, and Short-Term Fourier transform,” Structural Control & Health Monitoring, DOI: 10.1002/stc.349, 16(7-8), 800-841 (2009).

Narasimhan, S. Suresh, S., Nagarajaiah, S. and Sundararajan, N. “On-Line Learning Failure-Tolerant Neural-Aided Controller for Earthquake Excited Structures” Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9399(2008), 134 (3), 258-268 (2008).

Nagarajaiah, S. and Narasimhan, S. “Seismic control of smart base isolated buildings with new semiactive variable damper,” Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, DOI: 10.1002/eqe.650, 36(6), 729-749 (2007).

Nagarajaiah, S., and Sonmez, E. “Structures of semiactive variable stiffness multiple tuned mass dampers under harmonic forces,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 133(1), 67-77, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2007), 133:1(67) (2007).

Nagarajaiah S. , Mao, Y. Q. and Sahasrabudhe, S. “Nonlinear, seismic response spectra of smart sliding isolated structures with independently variable MR dampers and variable stiffness SAIVS system” Structural Engineering and Mechanics, 24 (3), 375-393 (2006).

Narasimhan, S., and Nagarajaiah, S. “Smart base isolated buildings with variable friction systems: H controller and SAIVF device,” Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, DOI: 10.1002/eqe.559, 35(8), 920-942 (2006).

Nagarajaiah, S. and Sahasrabudhe, S. “Seismic response control of smart sliding isolated buildings using variable stiffness systems: Experimental and numerical study,” Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics Journal, DOI: 10.1002/eqe.514, 35(2), 177-197 (2006).

Sahasrabudhe, S. and Nagarajaiah, S. “Effectiveness of variable stiffness systems in base isolated bridges subjected to near fault earthquakes: Experimental study,” Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, DOI: 10.1177/1045389×05054999, 16(9), 743-756 (2005).

Sahasrabudhe, S. and Nagarajaiah, S. “Experimental study of sliding isolated buildings with MR dampers in near fault earthquakes,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, DOI: 10.1061/(asce)0733-9455(2005)131:7(1025), 131(7), 1025-1034 (2005).

Sahasrabudhe, S. and Nagarajaiah, S. “Seismic response control of sliding isolated bridges with MR dampers: Experimental and numerical Study,” Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, DOI: 10.1002/eqe.464, 34(7), 965-983 (2005).

Narasimhan, S., and Nagarajaiah, S. “STFT Algorithm for Semiactive Control of Base Isolated Buildings with Variable Stiffness Isolation Systems Subjected to Near Fault Earthquakes,” Engineering Structures, DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2004.11.010, 27, 514-523 (2005).

Nagarajaiah, S. and Varadarajan, N. “Semi-active control of wind excited building with variable stiffness TMD using short time Fourier transform,” Engineering Structures, DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2004.10.015, 27(3), 431-441 (2005).

Varadarajan, N. and Nagarajaiah, S. “Wind response control of building with variable stiffness tuned mass damper using empirical mode decomposition and Hilbert Transform,” Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE, DOI: 10.1061/(asce)0733-9399(2004)130:4(451), 130(4), 451-458 (2004).